One of the key elements of the ongoing Russian military reform is its human resource component. Planned for the next decade 20 trillion rubles for Russian Armed Forces supplying with modern weapons and military equipment may be dead capital , if staff for their application is not prepared.
Decades of endless changes in the Russian military school posed the problem of stability and sustainability. Each country has its own opportunities, trends, constraints. Most of the problems of the Russian military school are inextricably linked to its history and are closely connected with the state of social and spiritual, political, economic, international and purely military aspects of the society’s life. The strengths and weaknesses of these areas affect the training of military personnel.
A number of stages can be singled out in the history of Russian military personnel training.
The first stage begins from the formation of a regular army in the early eighteenth century.
Initially, military education was acquired as all sorts of craft from father to son. With the advent of firearms the transition to a regular army and government training began. Russian military schools, founded by Peter the Great, include the training of military personnel in the guards regiments and special schools and was based on a purely rational basis.
The second stage is characterized by the formation and development of the system of military education since the second half of the eighteenth till the early twentieth century. All reformers were liberating military school by their micromanagement and regulation, counterreformers regulated innovations, preserving them. Catherine II added humanitarian component to the rationalism to the military school. Paul I upgraded the training of artillery. There was a continuous process of development.
The third stage of the history of the military education is Soviet period, from 1917 to 1991. It is divided into four periods: 1917-1941, 1941-1945, 1946-1964, 1965-1991. It is characterized by the solving of the military- educational problems in isolation from foreign military schools. Soviet military school underwent a difficult and controversial way – from the denial of domestic experience to its restoration using rigid ideological constraints.
The strengths of the Soviet military schools of the postwar period belonged to military training . Front-line officers gave the cadets what they needed during war and in conditions close to it.
The fourth stage of the history of military education begins from early 90 ‘s and continues now. It can be divided into two periods: the 90s of the last century and the beginning of the twenty-first one. It is notable with attempts to understand the historical experience of military training and the strong influence of the Soviet military schools, ignoring of science and imitations of reform.